Braking System: An Essential Parts Providing Safety

Binita Sarker Protha, ME (2021-22)

Braking System: An Essential Parts Providing Safety

In a car, the braking system is a vital component that provides control and safety. Its complex parts and mechanics are made to efficiently stop or slow down a car by creating friction that converts kinetic energy into heat. Brakes are necessary for maneuvering through traffic, handling curves, and reacting to unexpected roadblocks. Technology has led to the emergence of a variety of braking systems, each designed to meet the needs of a particular vehicle model and set of driving circumstances. The development of braking systems, from simple drum and disc brakes to more advanced anti-lock braking systems (ABS), emphasizes how important they are to maintaining road safety and performance. A brake is a mechanical device used to stop a moving object by absorbing its energy.

On other words, Braking system means the combination of parts whose function is progressively to reduce the speed of a moving vehicle or bring it to a halt, or to keep it stationary if it is already halted.

In modern cars, the Antilock Braking System (ABS) helps prevent wheel lockup and slippage when the brakes are used. It is an automotive safety device, and it has a regulator to control the torque needed to maintain the ideal slip ratio. Wheel spin and vehicle speed are indicated by the slip ratio. It is an automatic system based on the cadence and threshold braking concepts used by experienced drivers with earlier models of brake systems. Its quick reaction time makes steering simple for the driver. On slick and dry surfaces, ABS often provides enhanced vehicle control and shortens stopping distances; but, on uneven surfaces, such as pebbles or snow-covered pavement, ABS can deliberately increase braking distance.

What is Breaking System?

A braking system is a mechanical system designed to restrain motion by absorbing energy from a moving system usually by means of friction. It is used to slow or stop a moving vehicle, wheels, axle, etc. The braking system is a complication device with a lot of parts, but its working seems very easy. After all, pressing a single pedal will activate all brakes on the four wheels. The slowing down is achieved by hydraulic fluid, which is often bled to get the best performance of the breaking. Air is not allowed in the system else the component won’t work well.

Most brakes are designed to use friction between two surfaces, they’re pressed to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat. Though several methods of energy conversion are now employed. In an automobile, friction brakes store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake which then gradually converts into the air.

In modern vehicles, the brake pedal is pushed against the master cylinder. There is a piston that pushes the brake pad against the brake disc, which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum, the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum to slow down the wheel.

Components of Breaking System

Below are the components utilized in the automotive braking system:

Brake Pedal: This component, located between the accelerator and clutch pedals inside the vehicle, is pressed by the foot to activate the brakes.

Fluid Reservoir: The fluid reservoir houses the brake fluid or brake oil used in the braking system.

Fluid Lines: Fluid lines consist of pipes through which brake fluid circulates within the vehicle.

Brake Pads: Employed in disc brakes, brake pads are steel backing plates often composed of materials like ceramic, metal, or durable composites.

Brake Shoes: Brake shoes are composed of two connected pieces of sheet steel that support the brake lining.

Brake Drum: A rotating drum-shaped component integral to the drum brake system.

Rotor: The rotor, often made of cast iron or reinforced materials like carbon-carbon or ceramics, serves as a brake disc connected to a wheel or axle.

Brake Lining: Encased within the brake shoe, brake lining is a heat-resistant material with high friction properties, offering a balance of softness and toughness.

Types of Braking Systems

Most brakes use friction on the two sides of the wheel, the collective press on the wheel converts the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat. For example, regenerative braking turns much of the energy to electrical energy, which may be stored for later use. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to turn kinetic energy into electrical current in the brake disc, blade, or rail, which is converted into heat.

The following are the most common types of braking systems in modern cars. It’s always good to know which ones fit your car for easy troubleshooting and servicing.

Hydraulic Braking System

This system runs on brake fluid, cylinders, and friction. By creating pressure within, glycol ethers or diethylene glycol forces the brake pads to stop the wheels from moving.

• The force generated in the hydraulic braking system is higher when compared to the mechanical braking system.

• The hydraulic braking system considered as one of the important braking systems for modern vehicles.

• The chance of brake failure is very less in case of the hydraulic braking system. The direct connection between the actuator and the brake disc or drum makes very less chance of brake failure.

Electromagnetic Braking System

Electromagnetic braking systems can be found in many modern and hybrid vehicles. The electromagnetic braking system uses the principle of electromagnetism to achieve frictionless braking. This serves to increase the life span and reliability of brakes. Also, traditional braking systems are prone to slipping while this is backed with the quick magnetic brakes. So, without friction or need of lubrication, this technology is preferred in hybrids. Also, it is quite modest in size compared to the traditional braking systems. It is mostly used in the trams and trains.

To make electromagnetic brakes work, a magnetic flux when passed in a direction perpendicular to the rotating direction of the wheel, we see rapid current flowing in a direction opposite to the rotation of the wheel. This creates an opposing force to the wheel rotation, and it slows down the wheel.

Servo Braking System

Also known as vacuum or vacuum-assisted braking. Among this system, the pressure applied to the pedal by the driver is increased.

They use the vacuum that is produced in petrol engines by the air intake system in the engine's intake pipe or via a vacuum pump in diesel engines.

A brake where power assistance is used to reduce the human effort. In a car, engine vacuum is often used to make a large diaphragm flex and operate the control cylinder.

• Servo braking system boosters used with the hydraulic brake system. The size of the cylinder and the wheels are practically employed. Vacuum boosters increase the braking force.

• Pushing the brake pedal releases the vacuum on the side of the booster. The difference in the air pressure pushes the diaphragm for breaking the wheel.

Mechanical Braking System

The mechanical braking system powers the hand brake or emergency brake. It is the type of braking system in which the brake force applied on the brake pedal is carried to the final brake drum or disc rotor by the various mechanical linkages like cylindrical rods, fulcrums, springs etc. In order to stop the vehicle.

In a motor vehicle, the wheel is attached to an auxiliary wheel called a drum. The brake shoes are made to contact this drum. In most designs, two shoes are used with each drum to form a complete brake mechanism at each wheel. The brake shoes have brake linings on their outer surfaces.

Each brake shoe is hinged at one end by an anchor pin, and the other end is operated by some means so that the brake shoe expands outward, and the brake linings come into contact with the drum. Retracting spring keeps the brake shoes in position when the brakes are not applied. The drum encloses the entire mechanism to keep out dust and moisture.

Mechanical brakes were used in several old automobile vehicles, but they are archaic nowadays due to their less effectiveness.

Each brake shoe is hinged at one end by an anchor pin, and the other end is operated by some means so that the brake shoe expands outward, and the brake linings come into contact with the drum. Retracting spring keeps the brake shoes in position when the brakes are not applied. The drum encloses the entire mechanism to keep out dust and moisture.

The wheel-attaching bolts on the drum are used to contact the wheel and drum. The braking plate completes the brake enclosure, holds the assembly to the car axle, and acts at the base for fastening the brake shape and operating mechanism. The shoes are generally mounted to rub against the inside surface of the drum to form an internal expanding brake.

The Principle of Braking System

The general principle of a brake system is to prevent the wheel from turning or turning by using the friction between the non-rotating elements connected to the body (or frame) and the rotating elements connected to the wheel (or transmission shaft).

The schematic diagram of a simple hydraulic braking system can be used to explain the working principle of the braking system. A metal brake drum with an inner circle as the working surface is fixed on the wheel hub and rotates with the wheel. On the fixed brake floor, there are two supporting pins supporting the lower end of the two arc brake shoes. The outer surface of the brake shoe is equipped with friction plates. The brake base plate is also equipped with a hydraulic brake wheel cylinder, which is connected with the hydraulic brake main cylinder mounted on the frame by tubing 5. The piston 3 in the master cylinder can be operated by the driver through the brake pedal mechanism.

When the driver stepped down the brake pedal, the piston compressed the brake fluid, the wheel cylinder piston in the hydraulic role of the brake shoe pressure to the brake drum, so that the brake drum reduces rotational speed or remains stationary.

When you know the brake system of a certain type of car, you may often hear the words "front disc rear drum" or "front disc rear drum". So, what does it mean? Readers have emailed questions about car braking systems, such as the difference between disc brakes and drum brakes, the difference between ventilation discs and solid discs, and so on.

The Function of Breaking System

A braking system plays a critical role in ensuring the safety of the vehicle and its occupants. It allows the driver to control the vehicle's speed and bring it to a safe stop when required, preventing accidents and collisions.The braking system is designed to convert the vehicle's kinetic energy into thermal energy. It contains several parts, including brake pads, brake rotors, calipers, and brake fluid. The purpose of the brake or brake system is to safely and reliably decelerate the vehicle, regardless of its speed. The brake also needs to keep the vehicle stationary when the driver is not there and when the vehicle is located on a slope. An automatic braking system is an important part of safety technology for automobiles. It is an advanced system, specifically designed to either prevent possible collision, or reduce speed of the moving vehicle, prior to a collision with another vehicle, pedestrian or an obstacle of some sort.

The function of a braking system is to slow down or stop a vehicle. It is a critical safety feature that allows the driver to maintain control over the vehicle's speed and bring it to a halt when necessary. The braking system helps prevent accidents by reducing the vehicle's kinetic energy and friction generated between the brake pads and rotors or drums. It also redistributes the vehicle's weight to improve stability and control during braking.

Breaking systems can have significant consequences, leading to disruption, financial loss, and even harm to individuals or societies. It is essential to recognize that breaking systems for malicious purposes, such as hacking or cyberattacks, is illegal and unethical.

On the other hand, intentionally breaking systems for testing or ethical hacking purposes can be valuable for identifying vulnerabilities and improving system security. These activities should be conducted responsibly, following ethical guidelines and seeking authorization from the system owners or relevant authorities.

In any case, breaking systems highlights the importance of robust security measures and continuous monitoring and improvement of systems. It serves as a reminder for organizations and individuals to remain vigilant in protecting their assets, data, and privacy in our increasingly interconnected digital world.

In conclusion, breaking the system can lead to various consequences. It can result in the disruption of essential services, loss of trust, and legal consequences for the individuals involved. Breaking the system is generally seen as unethical and can have far-reaching impacts beyond the immediate consequences. It is essential to comply with the rules and regulations in place to maintain the integrity and stability of the system.